Thursday, March 25, 2010

the world of IT

The Information Technology (IT)

Information technology (IT) or information and communication technology (ICT) is a broad subject which deals with technology and other aspects of managing and processing information, especially in large organizations. Particularly, IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and retrieve information. Over the past 20 years, its prevalence has dramatically increased so that it is now a part of nearly every aspect of daily life.
More about information technology...

Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of a wide range of computer-based tools that assist engineers, architects and other design professionals in their design activities. It is the main geometry authoring tool within the Product Lifecycle Management process and involves both software and sometimes special-purpose hardware. Current packages range from 2D vector based drafting systems to 3D solid and surface modellers.

CAD is sometimes translated as "computer-assisted", "computer-aided drafting", or a similar phrase. Related acronyms are CADD, which stands for "computer-aided design and drafting", CAID for Computer-aided Industrial Design and CAAD, for "computer-aided architectural design". All these terms are essentially synonymous, but there are a few subtle differences in meaning and application.

CAD was originally the three letter acronym for "Computer Aided drafting" as in the early days CAD was really a replacement for the traditional drafting board.
But now is the term is often interchanged with "Computer Aided Design" to reflect the fact that modern CAD tools do much more than just drafting. the article.

Did you know...

* ...that through the Usenet newsgroup, Babylon 5 creator and writer J. Michael Straczynski is often credited as being the first TV producer to directly engage with his fans on the internet, and have their comments impact the look and feel of his work?
* ...that is a space and astronomy news website launched in 1999 by CNN anchor Lou Dobbs?
* ...that partnered with in 2001, even though a judge had ordered to pay $21.5 million earlier for having a similar logo?
* ...that the short-lived Apple Network Servers were the last non-Macintosh computers manufactured by Apple?
* ...that F.I.B.S is the earliest backgammon server on the internet and has been actively operating since July 19, 1992?

WikiProjects connected with information technology:

* Blu-ray
* C++
* Computer science
* Computing
* Computer networking
* Computer Security
* Early Web History

* Macintosh
* .NET
* Plan 9
* Programming Languages
* Video games

Information systems discipline

Information Systems (or IS) is historically defined as a 'bridge' anchored between the business world and computer science, but this discipline is slowly evolving towards a well-defined science.[1] Typically, Information Systems (or IS) include people, procedures, data, software, and hardware (by degree) that are used to gather and analyze information.[2][3] Specifically computer-based information systems are complementary networks of hardware/software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create, & distribute data.[4] Today, Computer Information System(s) or CIS is often a track within the computer science field pursuing the study of computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their software & hardware designs, their applications, and their impact on society.[5] Overall, an IS discipline emphasizes functionality over design.

In a broad sense, the term Information Systems refers to the interaction between algorithmic processes and technology. This interaction can occur within or across organizational boundaries. An information system is not only the technology an organization uses, but also the way in which the organizations interact with the technology and the way in which the technology works with the organization’s business processes. Information systems are distinct from information technology (IT) in that an information system has an information technology component that interacts with the processes components.

* 1 Overview
* 2 Types of information systems
* 3 Information systems career pathways
* 4 Information systems development
* 5 Information systems development methodology
* 6 Information systems research
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 Further reading
* 10 External links


An Information System consists of four parts which include: procedures, software, hardware, and information or data, which are essentially the same. There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, office systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, database management systems, and office information systems. Critical to most information systems are information technologies, which are typically designed to enable humans to perform tasks for which the human brain is not well suited, such as: handling large amounts of information, performing complex calculations, and controlling many simultaneous processes.

Information technologies are a very important and malleable resource available to executives.[6] Many companies have created a position of Chief Information Officer (CIO) that sits on the executive board with the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Chief Operating Officer (COO) and Chief Technical Officer (CTO).The CTO may also serve as CIO, and vice versa. The Chief Information Security Officer (CISO), who focuses on information security within an organization, normally reports to the CIO.

In this regard, information system professionals and their associates have strong analytical and critical thinking skills to implement large-scale business models within any organization. Although solving problems within an organization is a common practice, IS professionals have the ability to automate these solutions via programmable technologies without violating ethical principles. As an end-result, IS professionals must have a broad business and real world perspective to implement technology solutions that enhance organizational performance.[7]

In computer security, an information system is described by the following components [8]:

* Repositories, which hold data permanently or temporarily, such as buffers, RAM, hard disks, cache, etc. Often data stored in repositories is managed through a database management system.
* Interfaces, which support the interaction between humans and computers, such as keyboards, speakers, scanners, printers, etc.
* Channels, which connect repositories, such as routers, cables, etc..

Types of information systems

The 'classic' view of Information systems found in the textbooks[9] of the 1980s was of a pyramid of systems that reflected the hierarchy of the organization, usually Transaction processing systems at the bottom of the pyramid, followed by Management information systems, Decision support systems and ending with Executive information systems at the top.

However, as new information technologies have been developed, new categories of information systems have emerged, some of which no longer fit easily into the original pyramid model. Some examples of such systems are:

* Data warehouses
* Enterprise resource planning
* Enterprise systems
* Expert systems
* Global information system
* Office Automation
* Geographic information system

Information systems career pathways

Information Systems have a number of different areas of work:

* Information systems strategy
* Information systems management
* Information systems development
* Information systems security
* Information systems iteration

There are a wide variety of career paths in the information systems discipline. "Workers with specialized technical knowledge and strong communications skills will have the best prospects. Workers with management skills and an understanding of business practices and principles will have excellent opportunities, as companies are increasingly looking to technology to drive their revenue." [10]
Information systems development

Information technology departments in larger organizations tend to strongly influence information technology development, use, and application in the organizations, which may be a business or corporation. A series of methodologies and processes can be used in order to develop and use an information system. Many developers have turned and used a more engineering approach such as the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) which is a systematic procedure of developing an information system through stages that occur in sequence. An Information system can be developed in house (within the organization) or outsourced. This can be accomplished by outsourcing certain components or the entire system.[11]. A specific case is the geographical distribution of the development team (Offshoring, Global Information System).

A computer based information system, following a definition of Langefors[12], is:

* a technologically implemented medium for recording, storing, and disseminating linguistic expressions,
* as well as for drawing conclusions from such expressions.

which can be formulated as a generalized information systems design mathematical program

Geographic Information Systems, Land Information systems and Disaster Information Systems are also some of the emerging information systems but they can be broadly considered as Spatial Information Systems. System development is done in stages which include:

* Problem recognition and specification
* Information gathering
* Requirements specification for the new system
* System design
* System construction
* System implementation
* Review and maintenance

Information systems development methodology

Information systems development methodology or ISDM is a tool kit of ideas, approaches, techniques and tools which system analysts use to help them translate organisational needs into appropriate Information Systems;

An ISDM is:-

'....recommended collection of philosophies, phases, procedures, rules, techniques, tools, documentation, management, and training for developers of Information Systems”. (Avison and Fitzgerald, 1988)
[edit] Information systems research

Information systems research is generally concerned with the study of the effects of information systems on the behavior of individuals, groups, and organizations.[14][15] Notable publication outlets for information systems research are the journals Management Information Systems Quarterly, Information Systems Research, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, and Communications of the Association for Information Systems.

Since information systems is an applied field, industry practitioners expect information systems research to generate findings that are immediately applicable in practice. However, that is not always the case. Often information systems researchers explore behavioral issues in much more depth than practitioners would expect them to do. This may render information systems research results difficult to understand, and has led to criticism.[16]

To study an information system itself, rather than its effects, information systems models are used, such as EATPUT.
[edit] See also

Related studies

* Computer Science
* Bioinformatics
* Business informatics
* Cheminformatics
* Disaster informatics
* Geoinformatics
* Information system


* Data Processing System
* Data architect
* Data modeling
* Data Reference Model
* Database
* Metadata
* Predictive Model Markup Language
* Semantic translation
* Three schema approach


* Environmental Modeling Center
* Enterprise Information System
* European Research Center for Information Systems
* Information Processing System

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